1. Soak the fava beans or chick-peas in cold water overnight. Drain well. If the fava beans are not the skinless variety, remove skins. Skin may be left an chick-peas.
2. Mash to a fine paste using a mincer with a fine blade or an electric blender. (Traditionally this was done with mortar and pestle).
3. Add the egg, garlic, onion, parsley, cumin, coriander, salt and pepper together with the bicarbonate of soda and cayenne if desired. Mix well. Put it through the mincer or blender again.
4. Leave this mixture to stand for 30 minutes, preferably in the refrigerator, (This will make it easier to shape).
5. Shape the mixture into small balls about 2.5cm (1 inch) and then flatten them slightly between your hands. Dust with flour.
6. Heat oil in a deep pan and fry a few of the balls at a time, turning them until golden brown and crisp all over (about 5 minutes). Drain an paper towels.
7. Serve hot with Taratur bi Tahini, Dukkous al Tamat, (see page 155 salad or pickles or inside a split Khubuz with sauce and salad.
Cooking time. 5 minutes per batch